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RDX chemical structure
RDX The Acura RDX is Acura’s first compact luxury crossover SUV. Originally previewed as the Acura RD-X concept car, the production RDX had its debut at the 2006 New York Auto Show and went on sale on August 11, 2006. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 728 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (881 × 726 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/png) Chemical structure of RDX created with ChemDraw. ...

1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine
1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane
IUPAC name
Chemical formula C3H6N6O6
Molecular mass 222.117 g/mol
Shock sensitivity Low
Friction sensitivity Low
Density 1.82 g/cm³
Explosive velocity 8,750 metres per second
RE factor 1.60
Melting point 205.5°C
Autoignition temperature 234°C
Appearance colorless solid crystals
CAS number 121-82-4
PubChem 8490
SMILES C1N(CN(CN1[N+](=O)[O-])[N+](=O)[O-])[N+](=O)[O-]

Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, also known as RDX, cyclonite, hexogen, and T4, is an explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications. Nomenclature variants include Cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine and Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine. IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... Shock sensitivity is a comparative measure of the sensitivity to sudden movement of a chemical compound, usually of an explosive. ... Friction Sensitivity This is an approximation of the amount of friction or rubbing a compound can withstand before prematurely exploding. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: � (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centi metre. ... djbdasjkhfohasoiflkasdfioalkjsfoijaoislkna wu9832u09q1b oai iu3y hq oi23u89q This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... Relative effectiveness factor () is a measurement of an explosives power for military demolitions purposes. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Nitroamines are organic compounds that contain the chemical group R2N-NO2. ...


In its pure, synthesized state RDX is a white, crystalline solid. As an explosive it is usually used in mixtures with other explosives and plasticizers or desensitizers. It is stable in storage and is considered one of the most powerful and brisant of the military high explosives. Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... Brisance is a measure of the rapidity with which an explosive develops its maximum pressure. ...


RDX forms the base for a number of common military explosives: Composition A (wax-coated, granular explosive consisting of RDX and plasticizing wax), composition A5 (mixed with 1.5% stearic acid), Composition B (castable mixtures of RDX and TNT), Composition C (a plastic demolition explosive consisting of RDX, other explosives, and plasticizers), Composition D, HBX (castable mixtures of RDX, TNT, powdered aluminium, and D-2 wax with calcium chloride), H-6, Cyclotol and C4. Stearic acid, also called octadecanoic acid, is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ... Composition B is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT as well as, in some instances, additional desensitizing agents. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Composition C is a plastic explosive consisting of RDX, other explosives, and plasticizer. ... HBX is a family of binary explosives that are composed of RDX, TNT, powdered aluminum, and D-2 wax with calcium chloride. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Cyclotol is an explosive made from a mixture of RDX and TNT.    This article is a stub. ... C4 or Composition C4 is a common variety of military plastic explosive. ...


RDX is also used as a major component of many plastic bonded explosives used in nuclear weapons. A polymer-bonded explosive, also called PBX or plastic-bonded explosive, is an explosive material in which particles of explosive are set into a matrix of a synthetic polymer (plastic). Polymer-bonded explosives have several potential advantages: If the polymer matrix is an elastomer (rubbery material), it tends to absorb...

Contents

Properties

The velocity of detonation of RDX at a density of 1.76 grams/cm³ is 8,750 meters per second. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Explosive velocity. ...


It is a colourless solid, of maximum theoretical density 1.82 g/cm³. It is obtained by reacting concentrated nitric acid with hexamine. The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Hexamethylenetetramine cage Hexamine ((CH2)6N4) is a chemical created by the reaction of 6 moles of formaldehyde and 4 moles of ammonia. ...


(CH2)6N4 + 4HNO3 → (CH2-N-NO2)3 + 3HCHO + NH4+ + NO3-


It is a heterocycle and has the molecular shape of a ring. It starts to decompose at about 170°C and melts at 204°C. Its structural formula is: hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine or (CH2-N-NO2)3. Heterocycles are organic chemical structures containing non-carbon elements. ...


At room temperature, it is very stable. It burns rather than explodes and detonates only with a detonator, being unaffected even by small arms fire. It is less sensitive than pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). However, it is very sensitive when crystallized, below −4°C. Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... A detonator is a device used to trigger bombs, shaped charges and other forms of explosive material and explosive devices. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate, also known as Penthrite) is one of the strongest known high explosives, with a relative effectiveness factor (R.E. factor) of 1. ...


Under normal conditions, RDX has a Figure of Insensitivity of exactly 80 (as this is the reference point). Figure of Insensitivity (or FofI) is an inverse scale of measure of the sensitivity of an explosive substance. ...


RDX sublimates in vacuum, which limits its use in pyrotechnic fasteners for spacecraft. Sublimation has three separate meanings: Sublimation (physics), the change from solid to gas without passing the liquid state Sublimation (psychology), the transformation of emotions Dye sublimation, the transference of printed images to a synthetic substrate by the application of heat Category: ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pyrotechnic fastener (also called an explosive bolt, or pyro, within context) is a fastener, usually a nut or bolt, that incorporates a pyrotechnic charge that can be initiated by a remote command. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ...


History

The discovery of RDX dates from the 1890s when a German (Hans Henning) offered it as a medicine. Its explosive properties were not discovered until 1920 (Herz?). In the 1920s RDX was produced by the direct nitration of hexamine. The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Hexamethylenetetramine cage Hexamine ((CH2)6N4) is a chemical created by the reaction of 6 moles of formaldehyde and 4 moles of ammonia. ...


RDX was used by both sides in World War II. In the United Kingdom RDX was manufactured in pilot plants at the RGPF Waltham Abbey in 1938 and at the Research Department at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. In 1939 a twin-unit industrial-scale plant was designed to be installed at a new site, ROF Bridgwater, away from London; and production of RDX started at Bridgwater in 1941. The United Kingdom attempted to be self-sufficient in the early stages of the war, and at this time the USA was still a neutral country; Canada, a member of the British Commonwealth, was looked upon to supply ammunition and explosives, including RDX. A slightly different method of production, but still using hexamine, was found and used in Canada, possibly at the McGill University Department of Chemistry (Meissner?). Urbanski[1] provides details of five methods of production. The American Bachmann process for RDX was found to be richer in HMX than the United Kingdom's RDX and there is a suggestion that this later led to a HMX plant being set up at ROF Bridgwater in 1955. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki TÅ�jÅ� Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image:NapoleonicBattle. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Royal Arsenal, originally known as the Woolwich Arsenal, carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing and explosives research. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Royal Ordnance Factory (ROF) Bridgwater) is a factory which produced high explosives for munitions. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... // HMX, also called octogen or cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, is a powerful and relatively insensitive nitroamine high explosive, chemically related to RDX. First made in 1930, it is used almost exclusively in military applications, including use as the detonators in nuclear weapons, in the form of polymer-bonded explosive, and as a... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


RDX was widely used during World War II, often in explosive mixtures with TNT such as Torpex. RDX was used in one of the first plastic explosives. RDX is believed to have been used in many bomb plots including terrorist plots. It was said to have been used in the Bombay (Mumbai) serial bomb blasts of March 8, 1993 in which more than 300 people were killed and about 1500 injured. Again, on July 11, 2006, a series of powerful explosions took place on seven suburban railway trains on Mumbai's Western Railway line killing 209 and injuring over 700. The use of RDX by the Islamic terrorist outfit Lashkar-e-Toiba in this incident was subsequently confirmed by India's state investigating agencies. Besides these two incidents, RDX has been used in several other terrorist related explosions in India over the years. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki TÅ�jÅ� Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Torpex is a secondary explosive 50% more powerful than TNT by weight. ... A C-4 plastic explosive. ...


There are many interpretations of its acronym including (but not limited to) Royal Demolition eXplosive, Research Department (composition) X, and Research Department eXplosive. Research Department composition X is most likely correct. In the United Kingdom, new military explosives were given an identification number preceded by the letters 'RD' indicating 'Research Department No.'. For some reason, this explosive was unable to be given a number (the story goes that the department that issued the numbers had just blown itself up, but this may be apocryphal). Instead, the letter 'X' was appended to indicate 'unknown' with the intention of adding the number later.


The first public reference in the United Kingdom to the name RDX, or R.D.X to use the official title, appears in 1948; its authors were the Managing Chemist, ROF Bridgwater, the Chemical Research and Development Department, Woolwich, and the Director of Royal Ordnance Factories, Explosives; it is referred to as simply RDX.[2] Davis, writing in the USA in 1943, stated that it was generally known in the USA as cyclonite; the Germans called it Hexogen and the Italians T4.[3] The Royal Arsenal, originally known as the Woolwich Arsenal, carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing and explosives research. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Urbanski
  2. ^ Simmons
  3. ^ Davis

References

  • Cooper, Paul W. (1996). Explosives Engineering. New York: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 0-471-18636-8. 
  • Davis, Tenney L. (1943). The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives, Volume II. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Urbanski, Tadeusz (1967). Chemistry and Technology of Explosives, Vol. III. Warszawa: Polish Scientific Publishers. 
  • Meyer, Rudolf (1987). Explosives, 3rd Edition. VCH Publishers. ISBN 0-89573-600-4. 
  • Simmons, W.H., Forster, A. and Bowden, R.C., (1948). The Manufacture of R.D.X. in Great Britain: Part II - Raw Materials and Axcillary Processes, in: The Industrial Chemist, Pages 530 - 545, August 1948.
  • Simmons, W.H., Forster, A. and Bowden, R.C., (1948). The Manufacture of R.D.X. in Great Britain: Part III - Production of the Explosive, in: The Industrial Chemist, Pages 593 - 601, September 1948.
  • Henning, German Patent 104,280 (1899).

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: RDX (799 words)
RDX is used as an explosive and is also used in combination with other ingredients in explosives.
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RDX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (667 words)
RDX is also used as a major component of many plastic bonded explosives used in nuclear weapons.
The velocity of detonation of RDX at a density of 1.76 grams/cm
In the United Kingdom RDX was manufactured in pilot plants at the RGPF Waltham Abbey in 1938 and at the Research Department at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich.
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