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The Column Failure Theory is Inapplicable

The fires were not hot enough to cause column failures.

  • Theory (Bazant & Zhou) assumes all columns on a floor were raised to 800º C.
    • Fires never covered an entire floor of the South Tower.
    • None of the features of 700+º C fires were observed:
      • Steel glowing red-hot
      • Extensive window breakage
      • Big bright emergent flames
      • Light smoke (not seen after first few minutes)
  • Fires have never caused column failure in steel structures.
  • Steel structures stay far below flame temperatures, because of steel's thermal conductivity.
    • Corus Construction performed extensive tests subjecting uninsulated steel-frame carparks to prolonged hydrocarbon-fueled fires.
      The highest recorded steel temperature was 360º C.
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