The Column Failure Theory is Inapplicable
The fires were not hot enough to cause column failures.
- Theory (Bazant & Zhou) assumes all columns on a floor
were raised to 800º C.
- Fires never covered an entire floor of the South Tower.
- None of the features of 700+ºC fires were observed:
- Steel glowing red-hot
- Extensive window breakage
- Big bright emergent flames
- Light smoke
(not seen after first few minutes)
- Fires have never caused column failure in tall steel buildings.
- Steel structures stay far below flame temperatures,
because of steel's thermal conductivity.
- Corus Construction performed extensive tests subjecting
uninsulated steel-frame carparks to prolonged hydrocarbon-fueled fires.
The highest recorded steel temperatures were 360ºC.